Metabolic bone disorders

  • Most common metabolic bone disorder
  • Conditions that occur as bone density and quality of bone declines, causing bone to become porous and fragile
  • Increases risk of fracture
  • High risk patients include: older age, small body size, kidney dysfunction, chronic steroid use, chronic thyroid dysfunction

Osteomalacia/Vitamin D Deficiency

  • Softening of bones that occur as a result of vitamin D deficiency, which affects calcium homeostasis. Symptoms include dull aching pain and muscle weakness.
Paget’s disease
  • A condition that causes bone to form faster than usual and results in a weaker fragile bone structure
Parathyroid disorders
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Caused by excess production of parathyroid hormone, a hormone produced in the parathyroid glands located behind the thyroid. High levels of this hormone cause calcium to be drawn out of the bone into the blood, causing symptoms of bone and joint pain, kidney stones, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and osteoporosis/osteopenia
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Caused by an underproduction of parathyroid hormone, causing an imbalance of calcium, vitamin D and phosphorus in the body.

Pre-menopausal bone loss, osteoporosis in men and women
Calcium and phosphorus disorders

  • These two minerals are essential for bone growth and strength. An imbalance in either of these can cause abnormalities in bone formation

Renal osteodystrophy

  • Bone disease that occurs as a result of kidney dysfunction – leading to low levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream


  • Disorders of bone formation are diagnosed by both lab tests and bone density scanning (also known as dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)). The DEXA scan allows practitioners to calculate a T score, which indicates how your bone density compares to a healthy 30 year-old. T-score is measured in units of standard deviations. Peak bone density is reached by the age of 30 years old and declines thereafter.
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